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Indoor chemistry of secondhand and thirdhand smoke

Institution: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Investigator(s): Mohamad Sleiman, Ph.D
Award Cycle: 2011 (Cycle 20) Grant #: 20KT-0051 Award: $271,559
Subject Area: General Biomedical Science
Award Type: New Investigator Awards
Abstracts

Initial Award Abstract
Many millions of Americans, both children and adults, are still exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their homes and workplaces despite a great deal of progress in tobacco control. Recently unearthed tobacco documents revealed that SHS becomes more harmful as it gets stale (ages). Moreover, research also shows that particles from secondhand tobacco smoke can settle onto hair, clothing, and other surfaces and remain there long after the smoke is gone. Some researchers call this thirdhand smoke (THS). Our recent work has now proven that these settled-out particles can form more cancer-causing compounds, through chemical changes involving nicotine. While aging seems to increase the toxins in tobacco smoke, the underlying changes to the makeup of SHS and THS are not yet well understood. However, this is of great importance to understand how harmful tobacco residues are and how much exposure non-smokers get. Currently, very little is known about how chemicals in SHS evolve between the time the smoke leaves a cigarette and the time people are exposed to the remaining toxins. In addition, only a few compounds have been identified in THS, while the vast majority of them are still unknown.

The goal of this study is to develop new techniques to watch how chemicals in SHS and THS change moment-by-moment as they age. We want to learn just how gases and particles in SHS become more hazardous with time, and how they behave on indoor surfaces and clothing. To accomplish this goal, we will use existing and state-of-the-art advanced instruments to probe the behavior of SHS and THS in realistic scenarios that correspond to typical indoor environments like homes. The experimental work will be done at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (in the Indoor Environment Department, in collaboration with the Advanced Light Source Division). At the end of this study we expect to have new data on how the composition of SHS aerosol and THS change during the minutes and hours after smoking. Moreover, a mathematical tool will be developed to estimate how much toxicological risk increases as SHS/THS age. The findings of our study will be used to design more accurate ways to measure exposure and improve our understanding of how SHS and THS harm people. The outcomes of this research will help provide a framework for important field studies to measure non-smokers’ exposure to aged SHS/THS. In addition, this project will generate further evidence to support efforts to cut-down and/or eliminate SHS/THS exposure in homes and public places.
Publications

Solid-phase supported profluorescent nitroxide probe for the determination of aerosol-borne reactive oxygen species
Periodical: Index Medicus:
Authors: Sleiman M, Destaillats H, Gundel LA ART
Yr: Vol: Nbr: Abs: Pg:

Thirdhand cigarette smoke in an experimental chamber: evidence of surface deposition of nicotine, nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and de novo formation of NNK
Periodical: Tobacco Control Index Medicus:
Authors: Schick SF, Farraro KF, Perrino C, Sleiman M, van de Vossenberg G, Trinh MP, Hammond SK _x000d_ ART
Yr: 2013 Vol: Nbr: Abs: Pg:

Thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells
Periodical: Mutagenesis Index Medicus:
Authors: Hang B, Sarker AH, Havel C, Saha S, Hazra TK, Schick S, Jacob III P, Rehan VK, Chenna A, S ART
Yr: 2013 Vol: 28 Nbr: 4 Abs: Pg: 381-391